Interband Cascade Lasers
nanoplus DFB interband cascade laser facilitates new TDLAS applications in mid-infrared
nanoplus offers a DFB interband cascade laser (ICL) at any target wavelength in the mid-infrared (MIR) between 3 μm and 6 μm. The device operates in continuous wave (cw) mode around room temperature. Specifications and behavior are very comparable to a nanoplus laser at lower wavelengths. When you set up an ICL-based analyzer, you can, hence, transfer the engineering knowledge you have gained from building short-wavelength gas sensors.
The nanoplus DFB ICL opens tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) for novel MIR applications in industrial gas sensing.
In the 3 μm to 6 μm wavelength window, now covered by interband cascade lasers, many industrially relevant trace gases have their strongest absorption bands. They show absorption strengths that are several orders of magnitude higher than those in other infrared (IR) areas. This concerns prevalent molecules such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO) or water (H2O). Most hydrocarbons, e. g. methane, equally locate their topmost absorbing features at these ICL wavelengths.
Using the strongest absorption band of the detected trace gas contributes to
- accelerate the sensing speed
- reduce the noise and
- miniaturize the sensor.
nanoplus ICLs are considered for various progressive applications in industry and research. In the oil and gas sector, they enable accurate process control and support higher energy efficiency and pollutant reduction.
Compared to other sensing techniques, such as gas chromatography, TLAS-based sensors offer the unmatched advantage of real-time analysis.
nanoplus DFB ICL technology outperforms other MIR laser technologies
Different laser technologies have been investigated in recent years to access the 3 μm to 6 μm wavelength range. Besides interband cascade lasers, GaSb-based type I interband diodes and intersubband quantum cascade lasers (QCL) have been a major focus of research.
While GaSb-based type I interband diodes have the disadvantage of decreasing hole confinement and increasing Auger recombination, fast phonon scattering loss impairs the use of intersubband QCLs.
An interband cascade laser, in contrast, uses optical transitions between an electron state in the conduction band and a hole state in the valence band in a cascade of Sb-based type-II QW structures. A broken-gap band edge alignment enables the tailoring of the emission wavelength by altering the cascade structures.
Interband-cascade technology is ideal for high-performance lasing in the entire range from 3 μm to
6 μm due to relatively wavelength-independent threshold powers. It combines high performance with reasonably low power consumption. Like all nanoplus lasers, these devices are manufactured without epitaxial overgrowth, avoiding impairment of ICL performance due to the insertion of patterning-induced defects within the laser layers.
Discuss your project with us
nanoplus is the only laser manufacturer offering DFB interband cascade lasers in the total range from 3 μm to 6 μm. We do the complete processing in house and may adapt our processes to your specifications. Contact us now to discuss your project.
Prism Award Winners 2012
nanoplus DFB interband cascade lasers (ICLs) won the “Prism Award for Green Photonics and Sustainable Energy” in 2012. They cover the entire wavelength range from 3000 nm to 6000 nm. Many prominent gas species have their strongest absorption features in this window. They are now accessible for tunable diode laser spectroscopy in industry and research. SPIE and Photonics Media honored the laser development in a ceremony during Photonics West in San Francisco.
Related information for nanoplus DFB interband cascade lasers between 3000 nm and 6000 nm
Mountings & Accessories
Papers & Links
The following table summarizes the typical DFB laser specifications in the 3000 nm to 6000 nm range:
|optical output power||Pout||mW||> 1|
|current tuning coefficient||CI||nm / mA||0.2|
|temperature tuning coefficient||CT||nm / K||0.3|
|typical maximum operating voltage||Vop||V||4 - 6|
|slope efficiency||e||mW / mA||0.06|
|side mode suppression ratio||SMSR||dB||> 35|
|slow axis (FWHM)||degrees||35|
|fast axis (FWHM)||degrees||55|
|operational temperature at case||TC||°C||+20|
nanoplus DFB lasers show outstanding spectral, tuning and electrical properties. They are demonstrated in figures 1 - 3. Click on the graphics to enlarge.
Free space mounting
nanoplus developed a specific free space package for interband cascade lasers. The TO66 header disposes of an extra large thermo-electric cooler. It is hermetically sealed with a black cap and anti reflection coated window. Please click on the mounting for detailed specifications and dimensions.
The nanoplus TO66 heatsink facilitates your laser set up by:
- improved heat distribution
- connectors for laser diode driver
- connectors for temperature controller
- M6 thread for optical posts
- easy use with standard cage systems
The nanoplus compact collimation module offers:
- collimated beam
- specified beam direction
- identical reference and heat sink plane
- TEC + thermistor
- hermetically sealed laser housing
Please find below a selection of related papers from our literature list.
Let us know if you published a paper with our lasers. We will be happy to include it in our literature list.
#2 Advanced Gas Sensing Applications Above 3 µm with DFB Laser Diodes;
L. Naehle, L. Hildebrandt, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Gases & Instrumentation, March/April 2012, pp. 25-28.
#5 DFB lasers exceeding 3 µm for industrial applications;
L. Naehle, L. Hildebrandt, Laser+Photonics 2012, pp. 78-80.
#7 DFB laser diodes expand hydrocarbon sensing beyond 3 µm;
L. Hildebrandt, L. Naehle, Laser Focus World, January 2012, pp. 87-90.
#8 ICLs open opportuneties for mid-IR seinsing;
L. Naehle, L. Hildebrandt, M. Kamp, S. Hoefling, Laser Focus World, May 2013, pp. 70-73.
#9 DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 µm for Sensing Applications;
W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, J. Koeth, Sensors 2010, 10, pp. 2492-2510.
#13 Continuous-wave operation of type-I quantum well DFB laser diodes emitting in 3.4 µm wavelength range around room temperature;
L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 1, Jan 2011, pp. 46-47.
#18 Monomode Interband Cascade Lasers at 5.2 µm for Nitric Oxide Sensing;
M. von Edlinger, J. Scheuermann, R. Weih, C. Zimmermann, L. Naehle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett., 26, 5, 2014, pp. 480-482.
#22 Sensing of formaldehyde using a distributed feedback interband cascade laser emitting around 3493 nm;
S. Lundqvist, P. Kluczynski, R. Weih, M. von Edlinger, L. Naehle, M. Fischer, A. Bauer, S. Hoefling, J. Koeth, Appl. Opt., 51, 25, 2012, pp. 6009-6013.
#26 Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers with single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature;
C.S. Kim, M. Kim, W.W. Bewley, J.R. Lindle, C.L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J.R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett., 95, 2009, 231103.
#36 Single mode interband cascade lasers based on lateral metal gratings;
R. Weih, L. Naehle, Sven Hoefling, J. Koeth, M. Kamp, Appl. Phys. Lett., 105, 7, 2014, pp. 071111.
#40 Comb-assisted spectroscopy of CO2 absorption profiles in the near- and mid-infrared regions;
A. Gambetta, D. Gatti, A. Castrillo, N. Coluccelli, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, L. Gianfrani, M. Marangoni, Appl. Phys. B, 109, 3, Nov. 2012, pp. 385-390.
#43 Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy;
Michele Gianella, Markus W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B, 109, 3, Nov. 2012, pp. 485-496.
#53 CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell;
K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefanski, S. So, D. Thomazy, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B, 112, 4, Sept. 2013, pp. 461-465.
#54 Demonstration of the self-mixing effect in interband cascade lasers;
K. Bertling, Y.L. Lim, T. Taimre, D. Indjin, P. Dean, R. Weih, S. Hoefling, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, A.D. Rakic, Appl. Phys. Lett., 103, 2013, 231107.
#61 Demonstration of an Ethane Spectrometer for Methane Source Identification;
T.I. Yacovitch, S.C. Herndon, J.R. Roscioli, C. Floerchinger, R.M. McGovern, M. Agnese, G. Petron, J. Kofler, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, S.A. Conley, E.A. Kort, L. Naehle, M. Fischer, L. Hildebrandt,.J. Koeth, J.B. McManus, D.D. Nelson, M.S. Zahniser, C.E. Kolb, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 2014, 8028-8034.
#62 High-sensitivity interference-free diagnostic for measurement of methane in shock tubes;
R. Sur, S. Wang, K. Sun, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. of Quant. Spectrosc. and Rad. Transfer, Vol. 156, May 2015, pp. 80–87.
#64 Interband Cascade Lasers - Topical Review;
I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, C.L. Canedy, C.S. Kim, M. Kim, W.W. Bewley, C.D. Merritt, J. Abell, S. Hoefling, Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48, 2015, pp. 123001-12017.
#67 New Opportunities in Mid-Infrared Emission Control;
P. Geiser, Sensors, 2015, pp. 22724-22736.
#74 Laser absorption diagnostic for measuring acetylene concentrations in shock tubes;
I. Stranic, R. K. Hanson, J. of Quant. Spectrosc. and Rad. Transfer, 142, July 2014, pp. 58-65
#75 Interband cascade laser sources in the mid-infrared for green photonics;
J. Koeth, M. von Edlinger, J. Scheuermann, S. Becker, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, R. Weih, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, Proc. SPIE 9767, Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers XV, 976712, March 10, 2016.
#77 Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing;
L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, R. J. Griffin; Optics Express Vol. 24, Issue 6, 2016, pp. A528-A535.
#78 Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell;
L. Dong,Y. Yu,.C. Li, S. So, F. Tittel, Optics Express Vol. 23, Issue 15, 2015, pp. 19821-19830.
#79 InAs-based distributed feedback interband cascade lasers;
M. Dallner, J. Scheuermann, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 2015, 181105.
#80 Single-mode interband cascade lasers emitting below 2.8 μm;
J. Scheuermann, R. Weih, M. v. Edlinger, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 2015, 161103.
#81 Dynamic spectral characteristics measurement of DFB interband cascade laser under
injection current tuning;
Z. Du, G. Luo, Y. An, J. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 2016, 011903.
#82 Ppb-level mid-infrared ethane detection based on three measurement schemes using a 3.34 μm continuous-wave interband cascade laser;
C. Li, C. Zheng, L. Dong, W. Ye, F. K. Tittel, Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. B, July 2016, 122:185.
# 83 Mid-infrared surface plasmon polariton chemical sensing on fiber-coupled ITO coated glass;
J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, M. Aguiló, T. Fernandez, J. Solis, F. Díaz, Optics Letters, Vol. 41, No. 11, June 1 2016,
pp. 2493 - 2496.
# 85 Frequency modulation characteristics for interband cascade lasers emitting at 3 µm;
J. Li, Z. Du, Y. An, Appl. Phys. B, 2015, 121:7–17.
# 86 Detection of methyl mercaptan with a 3393‑nm distributed feedback interband cascade laser;
Z. Du, W. Zhen, Z. Zhang, J. Li, N. Gao, Appl. Phys. B, 2016, 122: 100.
#87 Optical‑feedback cavity‑enhanced absorption spectroscopy with an interband cascade laser: application to SO2 trace analysis;
L. Richard, I. Ventrillard, G. Chau, K. Jaulin, E. Kerstel, D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B, 2016, 122:247.
#89 Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater;
C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad,L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. Douglas Archer Jr., B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, the MSL Science Team, Science, Vol. 347, Issue 6220, Jan 23, 2015, pp. 415-417.
#90 Optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a 3.24 µm interband cascade laser;
K. M. Manfred, G. A. D. Ritchie, N. Lang, J. Roepcke, J. H. van Helden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 2015, 221106.
#92 Development and field deployment of a mid-infrared methane sensor without pressure control using interband cascade laser absorption spectroscopy;
Ch. Zheng, W. Ye, N. P. Sanchez, Ch. Li, L. Dong, Y. Wang, R. J. Griffin, F. K. Tittel, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 244, June 2017, 365–372.
#93 Interband cascade laser-based optical transfer standard for atmospheric carbon monoxide measurements;
J. A. Nwaboh, Z. Qu, O. Werhahn and V. Ebert, App. Optics, Vol. 56, No. 11, April 10, 2017, pp. E84-E93.
#94 Compact optical probe for flame temperature and carbon dioxide using interband cascade laser absorption near 4.2 μm;
J. J. Girard, R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, R. K. Hanson, Elsevier, Combustion and Flame, Vol. 178, April 2017, pp. 158 – 167.
#95 Harsh-environment-resistant OH-vibrations-sensitive mid-infrared water-ice photonic sensor;
J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, F. Díaz, Adv. Mater. Technol. 2017, 1700085.
#100 Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers;
L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer and G. Wysocki, Opt. Eng. 57(1), 011014, Jan. 2018.
#101 Single-mode interband cascade laser multiemitter structure for two-wavelength absorption spectroscopy; J. Scheuermann, R. Weih, S. Becker, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Höfling, Opt. Eng. 57(1), 011008, Sept. 2017
#102 Laser detection;
L. Hildebrandt, Hydrocarbon Engineering, Feb. 2018
#103 Detection of ethanol using a tunable interband cascade laser at 3.345 μm;
H. Gao, L. Xie, P. Gong et al. Photonic Sensors, 2018, pp. 1 - 7.
#104 Mid-infrared heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy in flame measurements;
L. Ma, Z. Wang, K.-P. Cheong, H. Ning, W. Ren, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Elsevier, 2018, pp. 1 - 8.
#106 Design and performance of a dual-laser instrument for multiple isotopologues of carbon dioxide and water;
J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson and M. S. Zahniser, Optics Express Vol. 23, Issue 5, 2015, pp. 6569-6586.
# 107 Recent progress in laser‑based trace gas instruments:
performance and noise analysis;
J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson et. al., Appl. Phys. B, 2015, 119: 203.
# 108 Interband cascade laser-based ppbv-level mid-infrared methane detection using two digital lock-in amplifier schemes;
F. Song, C. Zheng, D. Yu, Y. Zhou, W. Yan, W. Ye, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B, 2018, 124:51.
#109 Dual-feedback mid-infrared cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for H2CO detection using a radio-frequency electricallymodulated interband cascade laser;
Q. He, C. Zheng, M. Lou, W. Ye, Y. Wang, F. K. Tittel, Opt. Expr., Vol. 26, No. 12, 2018, p. 15436.
#110 Performance enhancement of methane detection using a novel self-adaptive mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy technique;
F. Song, C. Zheng, W. Yan, W. Ye, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. K. Tittel, IEEE Phot. Journ., Vol. 10, No. 6, December 2018.
#112 Mid-infrared heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy in flame measurements;
L. Ma, Z. Wang, K.-P. Cheong, H. Ning, W. Ren, Pro. of the Comb. Inst. Vol. 37, Issue 2, 2019, pp. 1329 - 1336.
# 113 Non-uniform temperature and species concentration measurements in a laminar flame using multi-band infrared absorption spectroscopy;
L. Ma, L. Y. Lau, W. Ren, Appl. Phys. B, 2017,123: 83.
#115 Interband cascade laser absorption sensor for real-time monitoring of formaldehyde filtration by a nanofiber membrane;
C. Yao, Z. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Bian, C. Chen, L. Zhang, W. Ren, App. Optics, Vol. 57, No. 27, 20 September 2018, 8005.
#116 A portable low-power QEPAS-based CO2 isotope sensor using a fiber-coupled interband cascade laser;
Z. Wanga, Q. Wanga, J. Y.-L. Chingb, J. C.-Y. Wub, G. Zhangc, W. Rena,∗Sensors and Actuators, B 246, 2017, pp. 710–715.
#117 Nitric oxide analysis down to ppt levels by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy;
L. Richard, D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, Sensors, MDPI, Vol. 18, Iss. 7, 2018.
#118 The driver design for N2O gas detection system based on tunable interband cascade laser;
L. Liao, J. Zhang, D. Dong, E3S Web Conf., Vol. 78, 2019, 03002.
#119 Metrological quantification of CO in biogas using laser absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography;
J. A. Nwaboh, S. Persijn, K. Arrhenius, H. Bohlén, O. Werhahn, V. Ebert, Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 29, No. 9, 2018.
#120 Interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor for multiple hydrocarbons detection;
A. Sampaolo, S. Csutak, P. Patimisco, M. Giglio, G. Menduni, V. Passaro, F. K. Tittel, M. Deffenbaugh, V. Spagnolo, Proc. SPIE 10540, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XV, 105400C, Jan. 26th, 2018.
Licence ICL Production: Naval Research Laboratory
nanoplus ICL introduction: Introduction into nanoplus DFB Interband Cascade Lasers for Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy