Oil & Gas
Oil and natural gas are the main energy suppliers for many applications. In petrochemical processes e. g. H2S and other toxic, corrosive or explosive side-products can be generated. Real time monitoring and feedback loops to process parameters minimize the unintentional production for these components. For natural gas pipelines corrosion with risk of pipeline leaks and explosions have to be avoided by monitoring water vapor, H2S and other gases continuously.
Selected applications of nanoplus sensing lasers for applications in the oil & gas industry include:
Quality control in natural gas pipelines: H2O
Water vapour measurement is critical for gas companies to meet quality specifications and to protect pipelines from corrosion. False positives are very costly. Often the gas cannot be delivered if it is "wet".
Quality control in natural gas pipelines: CO2
CO2 is a natural diluent in oil and gas deposits. When it reacts with H2S and H2O steel pipelines corrode. Real-time monitoring of CO2 at natural gas custody transfer points is necessary to avoid contaminated gas from flowing downstream. Immediate measures may be taken to purify the natural gas. 
Control of hazardous gases: H2S
H2S occurs as a corrosive, toxic and explosive side product in the petrochemical industry. Continuous monitoring of this hazardous compound is critical to avoid corrosion of natural gas pipelines and ensure workers safety. Real-time analysis is essential to guarantee that burning fuels are H2S clean in order to prevent acid rains. [3, 69, 76]
Leakage control in gas pipelines: CH4
Leaks of CH4 may cause dangerous situations and are hard to locate precisely. Hence, maintenance of underground pipelines produces high costs. CH4 leaks are also an important source for greenhouse gases. With TDLS a strong tool is available to manufacture portable leak detectors.