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Carbon Dioxide (CO2)


Carbon Dioxide

Major Applications

nanoplus lasers detect carbon dioxide detection in numerous applications, such as in quality control for natural gas, pipelines for climate , breath gas analysis ,monitoring or combustion control, steel production as well as for isotope detection on Mars with the NASA's Curiosity Rover.

Tunable diode laser spectroscopy allows measuring CO2 with up to ppb precision in real time and in situ. Providing long-term stability and requiring little maintenance, nanoplus lasers are suitable for operation in harsh environments.

Which absorption line is the perfect one for your application?

Typical Wavelengths

Select your target wavelength

nanoplus offers various wavelengths to target the vibrational-rotational bands of carbon dioxide . Select the target wavelength that fits your application best.

The literature recommends several options. They are illustrated in the graphic on the right, which shows the relative intensities of the possible absorption lines. To define the most suitable CO2  wavelength for your application, you may have a look at our literature recommendations below or refer to the HITRAN database from the Smithsonian Institute.

We present the most common Distributed Feedback lasers for CO2 detection below. Learn more about their specifications.

Factors which you should consider in your setup

Above wavelengths as well as further customized wavelengths for carbon dioxide detection are available from nanoplus.

When you choose your wavelength, you have to consider your product set up, environment and nature of the measurement.

These factors influence the optimum wavelength for your application. Do have a look at the Hitran Database to further evaluate your choice of wavelengths. Our application experts are equally happy to discuss with you the most suitable wavelength for your application.

Let us know the wavelength you require with an accuracy of 0.1 nm!

Read more

Further Reading

Applications & Papers

We compiled several papers on carbon dioxide detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Refer to below literature list to read more or select your paper by application.

Papers & Links
CO2 and H2O
Isotope detection by NASA Mars Rover Curiosity: CO2 and H2O

NASA’s flagship Rover Curiosity detects CO2 and H2O isotopes based on their tunable laser spectrometer SAM. The analysis of soil samples is to determine whether Mars is or has been a suitable living environment. We are proud that the instrument uses a 2.78 µm nanoplus laser for this measurement.

[ 115 , 25 ]
Emission control of exhaust fumes: CO2

Remote sensing technologies identify unclean vehicles on the road. They help to control traffic-generated carbon dioxide emissions.

[ 115 ]
CO2 and NOx
Emission control of exhaust fumes: CO2 and NOx

Guided by environmental policies, the automobile industry is concerned to reduce the carbon footprint of vehicles. Automotive suppliers develop innovative combustion engines to control CO2 and NOx concentration in exhaust fumes.

[ 115 ]
Monitoring of breath gas: CO2

Helicobacter pylori bacteria cause stomach ulcer. Breath analysis diagnoses such an infection in a non-invasive way replacing disagreeable gastroscopies. It uses the CO2 concentration in exhaled breath as a biomarker.

[ 115 , 88 , 9 ]
Surveillance of volcanic activities: CO2

Early warning systems for volcanic eruptions continuously monitor CO2 by TDLS, as it is an abundant volcanic gas.

[ 115 ]
Emission control of greenhouse gases: CO2

Environmental policies have been implemented worldwide to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, human activities account for more than three quarters of CO2 emissions. They are mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation, transportation and industry. Remote sensing technologies have been introduced to quantify CO2 and CO emissions in atmosphere.

[ 115 , 105 , 93 ]
Quality control in natural gas pipelines: CO2

CO2 is a natural diluent in oil and gas deposits. When it reacts with H2S and H20 steel pipelines corrode. Real-time monitoring of CO2 at natural gas custody transfer points is necessary to avoid contaminated gas from flowing downstream. Immediate measures may be taken to purify the natural gas.

[ 115 ]
CO2 and CH4
Combustion control in high temperature processes: CO2 and CH4

Continuous monitoring of contents like CO2 or CH4 concentrations is essential for the efficiency of high-temperature processes in e. g. incinerators, furnaces or petrochemical refineries. Managing the CO2 content in combustion processes simultaneously reduces greenhouse gas emissions. This is also relevant for energy generating industries like coal burning power plants.

[ 154 , 124 , 121 , 115 , 112 , 111 , 96 , 94 , 62 , 45 , 40 , 35 , 12 ]
Papers & Links
# 4 Laser-Based Analyzers – Shining New Stars
P. Nesdore, Gases & Instrumentation, March/April 2011, pp. 30-33,
# 9 DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 µm for Sensing Applications
W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, J. Koeth , Sensors, 10, 2010, pp. 2492-2510.,
# 12 CO2 concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using diode-laser absorption near 2.7 µm
A. Farooq, J.B. Jeffries, R.K. Hanson, Appl. Phys. B, 90, 2008, pp. 619-628.,
# 16 Diode laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters of H2O-, CO2-, and N2-perturbed H2O transitions near 2474 and 2482 nm
C.S. Goldenstein, J.B. Jeffries, R.K. Hanson, Journal of Quantitative Spectr. & Radiative Transfer, 130, 2013, pp. 100–111.,
# 19 Measurements of Mars Methane at Gale Crater by the SAM Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity Rover
C.R. Webster, P.R. Mahaffy, S.K. Atreya, G.J. Flesch, K.A. Farley, 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference,, LPI Contribution No. 1719, March 18-22 2013, p. 1366.,
# 25 Isotope Ratios of H, C, and O in CO2 and H2O of the Martian Atmosphere
C.R. Webster, P.R. Mahaffy, G.J. Flesch, P.B. Niles, J. Jones, L.A. Leshin, S.K. Atreya, J.C. Stern, L.E. Christensen, T. Owen, H. Franz, R.O. Pepin, A. Steele, Science, 341, 6143, 2013, pp. 260-263.,
# 35 TDLAS-based sensors for in situ measurement of syngas composition in a pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasifier
R. Sur, K. Sun, J.B. Jeffries, R.K. Hanson, R.J. Pummill, T. Waind, D.R. Wagner, K.J. Whitty, 2014, Appl. Phys. B, 116, 1, 2014, pp. 33-42,
# 38 Monolithic widely tunable laser diodes for gas sensing at 2100 nm
N. Koslowski, A. Heger, K. Roesner, M. Legge, L. Hildebrandt, J. Koeth, Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers, XII, 2013, 864008,
# 40 Comb-assisted spectroscopy of CO2 absorption profiles in the near- and mid-infrared regions
A. Gambetta, D. Gatti, A. Castrillo, N. Coluccelli, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, L. Gianfrani, M. Marangoni, Appl. Phys. B, 109, 3, November 2012, pp. 385-390,
# 45 Measurements of CO2 in a multipass cell and in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 2 µm
J. A. Nwaboh, J. Hald, J. K. Lyngsø, J. C. Petersen, O. Werhahn , Appl. Phys. B, 109, 3, November 2012, pp. 187 - 194,
# 50 Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring;
J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, Marc L. Fischer, Appl. Phys. B, 109, 3, November 2017, pp. 271-277.,
# 63 Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits
C. Wang and P. Sahay, Sensors, 9, 2009, 8230 - 8262,
# 71 Novel utilisation of a circular multi-reflection cell applied to materials ageing experiments
D.A. Knox, A.K. King, E.D. McNaghten, S.J. Brooks, P.A. Martin, S.M. Pimblott , App. Phys. B, 119, 2015, pp. 55-64.,
# 88 Oxygen-18 isotope of breath CO2 linking to erythrocytes carbonic anhydrase activity: a biomarker for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes
C. Ghosh, G. D. Banik, A. Maity, S. Som, A. Chakraborty, C. Selvan, S. Ghosh, S. Chowdhury, M. Pradhan , Scientific Reports, 2015, 5 : 8137.,
# 94 Compact optical probe for flame temperature and carbon dioxide using interband cascade laser absorption near 4.2 μm
J. J. Girard, R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, R. K. Hanson, Elsevier , Combustion and Flame, Vol.178, April 2017, pp. 158 – 167.,
# 96 Fiber-coupled 2.7 μm laser absorption sensor for CO2 in harsh combustion environments
R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries and R. K. Hanson, Meas. , Sci. Technol., 24.April.2013, 055107.,
# 104 Mid-infrared heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy in flame measurements
L. Ma, Z. Wang, K.-P. Cheong, H. Ning, W. Ren , Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2018, pp. 1 - 8.,
# 105 Design and performance of a dual-laser instrument for multiple isotopologues of carbon dioxide and water
J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson and M. S. Zahniser , Optics Express, Vol.23, Issue 5, 2015, pp. 6569-6586.,
# 106 Recent progress in laser‑based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis
J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson et. al., Appl. Phys. B, 2015, 119: 203.,
# 111 Mid-infrared heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy in flame measurements
L. Ma, Z. Wang, K.-P. Cheong, H. Ning, W. Ren, Pro. of the Comb. Inst., Vol.37, Issue 2, 2019, pp. 1329 - 1336.,
# 112 Non-uniform temperature and species concentration measurements in a laminar flame using multi-band infrared absorption spectroscopy
L. Ma, L. Y. Lau, W. Ren, Appl. Phys. B, 2017, 123: 83.,
# 115 A portable low-power QEPAS-based CO2 isotope sensor using a fiber-coupled interband cascade laser
Z. Wanga, Q. Wanga, J. Y.-L. Chingb, J. C.-Y. Wub, G. Zhangc, W. Rena , Sensors and Actuators, B 246, 2017, pp. 710–715.,
# 121 A comparative laser absorption and gas chromatography study of low-temperature n-heptane oxidation intermediates
A. M. Ferris, J. W. Streicher, A. J. Susa, D. F. Davidson, R. K. Hanson , Proc. of the Comb. Inst., Vol.37, Iss.1, 2019, pp. 249-257.,
# 124 Tomographic laser absorption imaging ofcombustion species and temperature in the mid-wave infrared
C. Wei, D. I. Pineda, C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, Opt. Exp., Vol. 26, Iss. 16, 2018, pp. 20944 - 20951.,
# 133 Midinfrared sensor system based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy for dissolved carbon dioxide analysis in the south china sea: system-level integration and deployment
Z. Liu, C. Zheng, T. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Ren, C. Chen, W. Ye, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. K. Tittel, Anal. Chem., Vol. 92, Iss. 12, 2020, pp. 8178 − 8185.,
# 137 Line mixing and broadening of carbon dioxide by argon in the v3 bandhead near 4.2 μm at high temperatures and high pressures
D. D. Lee, F. A. Bendana, A. P. Nair, D. I. Pineda , R. M. Spearrin, , Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, No. 253, 2020, 107135,
# 139 Development of a Method for Non‐Invasive Measurement of Absolute Pressure in Partially Transparent Containers with Carbonated Beverages
M. Grafen, M. Falkenstein, A. Ostendorf, C. Esen, , Vol. 92, Iss. 11, Spec. Iss.: Bioraffinerien, Nov. 2020, , Chemie, Ingenieur, Technik, November 2020, pec. Iss.: Bioraffinerien, 2020, pp 1830 - 1839.,
# 150 In‑situ thermochemical analysis of hybrid rocket fuel oxidation via laser absorption tomography of CO, CO2, and H2O
F. A. Bendana, I. C. Sanders, J. J. Castillo, C. G. Hagström, D. I. Pineda, R. M. Spearrin, Experiments in Fluids, Iss. 9, Art. 190, 2020.,
# 151 The interband cascade laser
J. R. Meyer, W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, Photonics, Vol. 7, No. 3 (75), 2020,
# 154 Measurements of H2O, CO2, CO and Static Temperature inside Rotating Detonation Engines
K. Thurmond, K. A. Ahmed, S. Vasu, AIAA, SciTech Forum, Session: Detonative Pressure Gain Combustion I, 2019,
# 155 Time-resolved CO2 concentration and ignition delay time measurements in the combustion processes of n-butane/hydrogen mixtures
H. Dong, P. Zhimin, D. Yanjun, Combustion and Flame, Vol. 207, 2019, 222 - 231,
# 156 Ignition-delay-time/time-resolved CO2-concentration measurements during the combustion of iC4H10/H2 mixtures
D. He, Z. Peng, Y. Ding, Fuel, Vol. 284, 2021,
# 157 MHz laser absorption spectroscopy via diplexed RF modulation for pressure, temperature, and species in rotating detonation rocket flows
A. Nair, D. Lee, D. I. Pineda, J. Kriesel, W. A. Hargus Jr., J. W. Bennewitz, S. A. Danczyk, R. M. Spearrin, Appl. Phys. B, Lasers and Optics, 126, 2020,
# 159 Direct absorption spectroscopy baseline fitting for blended absorption features
J. M. Weisberger, J. P. Richter, R. A. Parker, P. E. DesJardin, Appl. Optics, 2018,
# 165 Near-Surface Carbon-Dioxide Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Concentration Measurements in Hypervelocity Flow
J. M. Weisberger, P. E. DesJardin, M. MacLean, R. Parker, Z. Carr, J. of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2015, 1551 - 1562,
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If you have any questions on above wavelengths or require advice on making your choice, our experts will assist you. Just email us or give us a call.